Posts tagged ‘gender’

A Civil Rights Champion Dies

We have just lost a champion of civil rights. James Cook, often called the “father of joint custody,” passed away last week in California. His passing is being lamented by prominent fathers’ rights attorney Jeffery Leving.

The people in Illinois have joint custodial rights for parents because of Jeffery Leving; however, he is quick to point out that it was James Cook who was the pioneer in this movement in our nation.

It is 30 years since James Cook initiated the joint custody movement, traveling all over the country to argue the case. As a result of his work, California passed the joint custody law in 1979, and this inspired Jeffery Leving to advocate a similar measure in his home state. Jeffery Leving co-authored the Illinois Joint Custody Act which the Illinois governor signed into law in 1986. Thus Jeffery Leving gave impetus to a movement which has in most states transformed the law concerning the custody of children.

James Cook’s effort has forever changed the treatment of fathers in the courts. When James Cook went through the trauma of divorce, there were no civil rights for fathers. The judge told him that the law did not permit him to grant joint custody. In contrast, about a decade later, New York Supreme Court Judge Richard Lattner regarded joint custody as “an appealing concept” that freed the court from making decisions based on gender.

Even now, the work started by James Cook is not complete as there are still many states that have no joint custody law on the books. Nevertheless, many fathers will be grateful to James Cook who launched the fathers’ rights movement; and to Jeffery Leving who continues to champion the cause, and has increased public awareness through publishing the online magazine, founding the non-profit Fatherhood Educational Institute, as well as chairing the government body the Illinois Council on Responsible Fatherhood.

Jeffery Leving expects to go to the graveside service for James Cook on Friday, March 6, 2009.

March 6, 2009 at 4:05 pm Leave a comment

Are American Husbands Slackers?

By Jeffery M. Leving & Glenn Sacks

In the wake of the death of feminist pioneer Betty Friedan, many women’s advocates are asserting that the revolution she began is only half complete:  career opportunities have opened up for women, but these careers are being undermined and sabotaged by women’s disproportionate and unfair household obligations. 

Judith Warner, author of Perfect Madness: Motherhood in the Age of Anxiety, recently asserted that the “gender caste system is still alive and well in most of our households…The outside world has changed enormously for women in these past 40 years. But home life? Think about it. Who routinely unloads the dishwasher, puts away the laundry and picks up the socks in your house?…The answer, for a great many families, is the same as it was 50 years ago…[Friedan’s] description of the lives of women in the 1950s sounded just too much like the lives of women today.” As feminist professor Linda Hirshman recently noted, “The glass ceiling begins at home.” 

Careers and wage-earning have certainly increased the demands on women’s time–have American men refused to hold up their end by contributing more at home? Are American husbands slackers?

Warner, Hirshman, and other feminist critics compare the work men and women do at home but fail to properly account for their disparate obligations outside the home. Census data shows that only 40% of married women with children under 18 work full-time, and over a quarter do not hold a job outside the home.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ 2004 Time Use Survey, men spend one and a half times as many hours working as women do, and full-time employed men still work significantly more hours than full-time employed women.

When both work outside the home and inside the home are properly considered, it is clear that men do at least as much as women. A 2002 University of Michigan Institute for Social Research survey found that women do 11 more hours of housework a week than men but men work 14 hours a week more than women. According to the BLS, men’s total time at leisure, sleeping, doing personal care activities, or socializing is a statistically meaningless 1% higher than women’s. The Families and Work Institute in New York City found that fathers now provide three-fourths as much child care as mothers do—50% more than 30 years ago.

Yet even these studies understate men’s contributions because they only count the hours devoted to a task without measuring the physical strain and/or danger associated with the task. A man doing eight hours of dangerous construction work in the 100-degree heat is credited with no more “work” than a woman who works in an air-conditioned office or who does childcare or housework in the comfort and safety of her own home (and without a supervisor breathing down her neck).

According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, more than three million workers a year are treated in hospital emergency rooms for occupational injuries—the vast majority of them suffered by men.  Nearly 100,000 American workers have died from job-related injuries over the past decade and a half, 95% of them men. Of the 25 most dangerous jobs listed by the U.S. Department of Labor, all of them are between 90 percent and 100 percent male.

The sacrifices made by men like Terry Helms, one of the 12 miners killed in the Sago Mine disaster last month, are unrecorded in the studies. Terry’s son Nick told the Associated Press that his father “had endured numerous injuries in a 30-year career and hated mining because of the dangers.”

“[My father] is very selfless,” Nick said. “[He] refused to quit because the job put food on the table…He gave his life in there so I could go to the movies.”

It is true, as Warner and Hirshman assert, that work outside the home is often more interesting than work done in the home. Yet it is also true that work done in the home—particularly time spent with one’s children when they are young—is often more satisfying than wage work.

Feminists’ persistent criticism of men has combined with women’s traditional expectations of their husbands to place men in a double bind. A man may be a devoted caretaker of his children or a talented cook, but if he is unable to provide for his family, he is not respected. Yet when a man works long hours to fulfill the breadwinner role which he is still expected to perform, he is blamed for not contributing as much at home as his wife does.

Feminists are right to complain that with long work weeks, the high cost of child care, scant union protections, and inflexible workplaces, working women often face a trying juggling act.  But they’re wrong to place the blame on husbands, who do their fair share and often make great sacrifices to provide for their wives and children.

Jeffery M. Leving is one of America’s most prominent family law attorneys. He is the author of the book Fathers’ Rights: Hard-hitting and Fair Advice for Every Father Involved in a Custody Dispute. His website is

Glenn Sacks’ columns on men’s and fathers’ issues have appeared in dozens of America’s largest newspapers. Glenn can be reached via his website at or via email at

March 5, 2009 at 9:37 pm Leave a comment